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Friday, December 2, 2022

A New Method for Detecting Tumors: Investigate the Organisms That Cause Them

If you search for a picture of a tumour on Google, you will most likely get a cluster of cancer cells with vivid colours on a dull backdrop of healthy tissue. This is a common representation of a tumour. On the other hand, cancer scientist Lian Narunsky Haziza, who works at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, has a totally different perspective on the situation. Additionally, a tumour may house millions of microorganisms, of which there may be hundreds of different kinds.

Although researchers have known for a long time that bacteria may be found in human body, they have traditionally dealt with malignancies as if they were sterile. However, in recent years, researchers have disproved that concept by finding that tumours are teeming with microorganisms all throughout their tissue.

In the year 2020, many research teams demonstrated that tumours are inhabited by a wide variety of bacterial assemblages. In addition, findings from two research that were published on Thursday in the journal Cell indicated that many different kinds of fungus call tumours their home.

Because of this discovery, Dr. Straussman and his colleagues decided to conduct a comprehensive analysis of bacteria found in more than one thousand tumours originating from seven different types of cancer. In the year 2020, they reported discovering bacteria hiding in each of the seven varieties.

At around the same time, a group of researchers from the University of California, San Diego, carried out their own search utilising a massive database of DNA collected from various forms of cancer in the early 2000s.

The Cancer Genome Atlas project was designed to assist researchers in identifying mutations in tumour genes, which are the underlying cause of cancerous cell growth that is out of control. However, the San Diego scientists realised that the raw data may possibly include DNA from bacteria that were present in the tumours as well.

There are around 6.2 million different species of fungi, making them one of the most successful groups in all of evolutionary history. They consist of organisms such as the yeasts that are responsible for the fermentation of bread and beer as well as the mould that was responsible for the discovery of penicillin.

They can not understand why the exam is accurate. It’s possible that geography has anything to do with it, but a lung tumour has a tendency to attract bacteria that are already in the lung. However, certain bacteria are able to travel to new organs and establish themselves within tumours. It is likely that the specific chemistry that exists inside a tumour, such as the amount of oxygen present, has a role in determining which microorganisms will grow in that environment.

Both of these recent research came to the conclusion that some microorganisms seemed to be linked to more detrimental cancer outcomes. For instance, Dr. Iliev and his colleagues discovered that individuals had a higher risk of dying from stomach cancer if the tumours in their stomachs contained a type of fungus known as Candida tropicalis.

It is plausible that some bacteria do more than merely take up residence in tumours; they may also contribute to the growth of cancers. They could hide the tumour from the immune system, render treatments ineffective, or aid in the progression of cancers across the body.

A microbiologist from Texas A&M University named Jessica Galloway-Pea, who was not involved in the new investigations, emphasised that the findings of this study alone could not determine whether or not a bacterium had any such impact. Experiments on cancer cells either grown in a dish or carried out on animals will need to be carried out by scientists.

Jonathan James
I serve as a Senior Executive Journalist of The National Era
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